Sand and silts were laid down in what is now the Ellsworth, Horlick and Pensacola Mountains. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. The Antarctic Convergence is an uneven line of latitude where cold, northward-flowing Antarctic waters meet the warmer waters of the worlds oceans. The Antarctic is a cold, remote area in the Southern Hemisphere encompassed by the Antarctic Convergence. Antarctica - Antarctica - Climate: The unique weather and climate of Antarctica provide the basis for its familiar appellations—Home of the Blizzard and White Desert. [53] In most of the interior of the continent, precipitation is very low, down to 20 mm (0.8 in) per year; in a few "blue ice" areas precipitation is lower than mass loss by sublimation, and so the local mass balance is negative. The Antarctic icecap melted as soon as the landmass began to move into warmer latitudes, exposing the majority of Antarctica's soil for the first time in millions of years. Conifers include Cupressinoxylon, which is the more common, and Podocarpoxylon. [188] The 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty also restricts a struggle for resources. [207], Coordinates: 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0, This article is about the continent. Species of moss endemic to Antarctica include Grimmia antarctici, Schistidium antarctici, and Sarconeurum glaciale, Distinct community of plants which evolved on the supercontinent of Gondwana, List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands, "A Fossil Wood Flora from King George Island: Ecological Implications for an Antarctic Eocene Vegetation", "CSIRO PUBLISHING - Australian Systematic Botany", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antarctic_flora&oldid=997045367, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 19:26. The name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική (antarktiké), feminine of ἀνταρκτικός (antarktikós),[9] meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north". The northern part of Antarctica is covered in lush tropical rainforest, which is home to many new species of plants, insects and birds. The Argentine, British and Chilean claims all overlap, and have caused friction. The frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. On average, it is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Given the latitude, long periods of constant darkness or constant sunlight create climates unfamiliar to human beings in much of the rest of the world. [170] A coalition of international organisations[171] launched a public pressure campaign to prevent any minerals development in the region, led largely by Greenpeace International,[172] which operated its own scientific station—World Park Base—in the Ross Sea region from 1987 until 1991[173] and conducted annual expeditions to document environmental effects of humans on Antarctica. Als geographisch-astronomische Zone wird sie durch den südlichen Polarkreis begrenzt und reicht somit vom Südpol bis 66° 33′ südlicher Breite. Black, white and green lichens have been found growing in tiny cracks in dry valleys. Mosses and lichens cling to rocky areas. But tropical palm trees once flourished there. New types of meteorites and rare meteorites have been found. Krill congregates in large schools and is an important food for many animals including whales, seals, squid, icefish, penguins, albatrosses and other birds. Heavy snowfalls are common on the coastal portion of the continent, where snowfalls of up to 1.22 metres (48 in) in 48 hours have been recorded. [199], Researchers include biologists, geologists, oceanographers, physicists, astronomers, glaciologists, and meteorologists. It was ice-free until about 34 million years ago, when it became covered with ice. About 99% of Antarctica is covered by ice. An ice sheet is a large stretch of glacier ice that covers the land all around it for more than 50,000 square kilometers (20,000 square miles). [1] Despite these new acts, unregulated and illegal fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish (marketed as Chilean Sea Bass in the U.S.), remains a serious problem. [40], Richard E. Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s. The interesting thing about the ice sheet “vegetation region” is that there really isn’t any vegetation there at all! Lichens, mosses, and terrestrial algae are among the few species of vegetation that grow in Antarctica. The Antarctic Peninsula, known as O'Higgins Land in Chile and Tierra de San Martin in Argentina, and originally as the Palmer Peninsula in the US and Graham Land in the United Kingdom, is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica. Mosses and lichens cling to rocky areas. [92], The most common rocks in West Antarctica are andesite and rhyolite volcanics formed during the Jurassic period. He was the precursor of Sir Robert Falcon Scott, Sir Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, and others associated with the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.From 1898 to 1900, he led the British-financed Southern Cross expedition, which … In fact, it is the only treeless continent in the world. [130] Models suggest that ozone depletion and the enhanced polar vortex effect also account for the period of increased sea ice just offshore of the continent. Offshore, temperatures are also low enough that ice is formed from seawater through most of the year. [128], There is a large area of low ozone concentration or "ozone hole" over Antarctica. Antarctica is the Earth's southernmost continent.It is on the South Pole.It is almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle.Around Antarctica is the Southern Ocean.It is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. Vegetation In some places mosses and lichens grow during the brief weeks of summer, when temperatures stay above freezing point on the Antarctic peninsula. The largest lake, Vostok, is one of the largest sub-glacial lakes in the world. The woody plants of the Antarctic flora include conifers in the families Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae and the subfamily Callitroideae of Cupressaceae, and angiosperms such as the families Proteaceae, Griseliniaceae, Cunoniaceae, Atherospermataceae, and Winteraceae, and genera like southern beech (Nothofagus) and fuchsia (Fuchsia). Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. [189], Small-scale "expedition tourism" has existed since 1957 and is currently subject to Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol provisions, but in effect self-regulated by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). Some environmentalists and scientists have made a call for stricter regulations for ships and a tourism quota. Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, lichens, and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra.An example of a dwarf shrub is the bearberry.As one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth decreases considerably. Most players who regular the Antarctic server tend to play in or around the surrounding Antarctic ocean, as it is more player-friendly … [43][44][45], It was not until 31 October 1956, that anyone set foot on the South Pole again; on that day a U.S. Navy group led by Rear Admiral George J. Dufek successfully landed an aircraft there. Among these are pieces blasted off the Moon, and probably Mars, by impacts. 9. [21] Cook came within about 120 km (75 mi) of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773.[22]. Antarctica (/ænˈtɑːrktɪkə/ or /æntˈɑːrtɪkə/ (listen))[note 1] is Earth's southernmost continent. [98] The lowest natural air temperature ever recorded on Earth was −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) at the Russian Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983. While a few of these countries have mutually recognised each other's claims,[167] the validity of these claims is not recognised universally.[1]. [160], Emilio Marcos Palma was the first person born south of the 60th parallel south, the first born on the Antarctic mainland, and the only living human to be the first born on any continent. Antarctic sightseeing flights (which did not land) operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979 on Mount Erebus, which killed all 257 aboard. [70] West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited. The melting ice in the coastal areas helps the growth of lichens, mosses, algae and water grass. A combination of freezing temperatures, poor soil quality, lack of moisture, and lack of sunlight inhibit plant growth. [15], In the early 19th century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland. Since about 15 Ma, the continent has been mostly covered with ice. ", "Protocol on Environmental Protection To The Antarctic Treaty (The Madrid Protocol)", Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, "The Foreign Secretary has announced that the southern part of British Antarctic Territory has been named Queen Elizabeth Land", "Argentina angry after Antarctic territory named after Queen", "Final Report, 30th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting", "2015–2016 Tourists by Nationality Total", "The World's Loneliest ATM is in Antarctica", "Private Issues – The Antarctica Issues and the NORFED Issues", "A history of McMurdo Station through its architecture", "Adelie Penguins thriving amid Antarctica's melting ice", "Polar Geospatial Center Releases New Application with High-Res Satellite Imagery", "Explorers of a Different Kind: A History of Antarctic Tourism 1966-2016", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antarctica&oldid=1008256819, Articles with French-language sources (fr), CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Geographical articles missing image alternative text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ice stream/outlet glacier (ice front or ice wall), 044°38′E to 136°11′E, and 142°02′E to 160°00′E, 80°00′W to 74°00′W claimed by Chile (1940), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by Chile (1940) and Argentina (1943), 53°00′W to 25°00′W claimed by Argentina (1943), 90°00′W to 74°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908) and Argentina (1943), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908) and Chile (1940), 53°00′W to 25°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908), This page was last edited on 22 February 2021, at 11:15. 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