If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Each berry contains three or four seeds that can remain viable in the soil for up to three years. Glossy buckthorn (also known as smooth buckthorn and European alder) also has an oval, upright form and tops out at 18 feet. I think the Canola oil is a great alternative to using diesel. Follow herbicide label instructions regarding temperatures at which the herbicide can be applied. Please use this style: [Author name], WisContext (or any of the partner organizations if the item is originally credited to them). Please link back to the original version in this note. To refill Buckthorn Blaster bottles, I use an old Garlon 4 jug. Garlon™ RTU formulated to be used right out of the container, no mixing is required. Packaging. Republished articles must be credited to the original author(s) and WisContext. Buckthorn does seem to die reliably from cut stump and basal bark treatments of triclopyr 4 herbicide in bark oil, in the same dolomite prairie habitats. Ultimately, buckthorn causes long-term decline of forests by shading. Buds lack scales, are hairy, and are found at the end of branches. When republishing any WisContext article, this credit must be included: [Article Title] was originally published on WisContext, which produced the article in a partnership between Wisconsin Public Radio and PBS Wisconsin. Spray the product on the lower 12 to 15 inches of bark around the stem and spray until the bark is wet. Product labels should be read and followed for safety and direction. By republishing articles online under these guidelines, you agree to immediately remove our content from your website if we contact you and request that you do so. Common buckthorn has brown to silver bark that is shiny when young and dark grey to black and scaly when mature. Vijai Pandian is a horticultural agent and educator for the University of Wisconsin-Extension Brown County. (WisContext often uses, If you share the republished story on social media, please mention @wiscontext on. Trees can be treated any time of the year, but the stems must be dry at the time of application. I buy my bark oil in 2.5 gallon jugs with only 2.0 gallons of oil. Only stories with the button are available for republishing. To test out this theory, I marked buckthorns that were foliar treated with triclopyr 3A or triclopyr 4 at concentrations of 2%, 5%, … Glossy buckthorn has gray to brown lenticels and lacks thorns. Single buckthorn stem that had been basal-barked with 20% Garlon 4 in oil. BASAL BARK, aka TREAT then CUT: This is by far our preferred method, if it is safe to leave the dead buckthorn trees standing for a while. Berries that have fallen on the ground should be raked and placed in a clear plastic bag labeled as “Invasive plants – Please landfill” for yard waste disposal. Do not apply to bark that’s wet from heavy dew and rain. You can remove snow around the base, but this can be time-consuming. Deep Snow: It is difficult to do either cut stump or basal bark treatments if the snow is more than a few inches deep. 15-Jun-2008. Very little herbicide is used, in a targeted spray on the trunk, so little herbicide goes elsewhere. We have been basal spraying the Buckthorn the last couple weeks with a mix of Garlon 4 and Canola Oil. I then mix 0,5 gallons of Garlon 4 into the jug. Basal Bark Treatment for Killing Small Trees One of the ways the herbicide works is Additional Tips: Eastern Nebraska Program Office Herbicide can be applied any time of year— including winter. Please do not sell advertising against WisContext articles, but they may be republished online or in print with existing ads. Good to add a dye as well. basal bark treatments: 1.Basal bark treatment: Mix 1–5 gallons of Garlon 4 Ultra in enough oil to make 100 gallons of mixture (1–5 percent). At the top of each of our available stories, you will see a button labeled "republish." They leaf out early in spring and shed very late in fall to outcompete native plants for light, space and nutrients. http://pvcblog.blogspot.com/2008/06/buckthorn-and-oak-savanna.html. It is generally only effective on plants with a diameter at breast height of 6” or less (Jackson 2017). They may not be published separately from the articles with which they appear. Spray until run-off at the ground line is noticeable. An oil formulated herbicide solution containing 6% triclopyr (Garlon 4, Pathfinder) as active ingredient is sprayed evenly around the stem to a height of about 12-15 inches above the ground. That provides me with the proportion of tank mix needed for basal bark and cut stump treatment. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources also provides information. WisContext serves the residents of Wisconsin, providing information and insight into issues as they affect the state. Basal bark treatment is a woody invasive plant control method that involves spraying herbicide or herbicide mixture carried in oil onto the stems bases of target plants. Cutting, hauling, bucking, and disposing of the buckthorn requires expending significant additional physical labor and … Treat the buckthorn with a basal bark mix (spray a little onto the trunk), let the tree die, and then later, cut it down. Their showy fruit display and hardy foliage made them popular ornamentals and now highly competitive invaders of eastern woods and wetlands. Any buckthorn plants not killed in the spring can be killed when they are found in summer, autumn, or winter by basal bark treatment. It is distinct to every different article, so make sure you are using the appropriate code. Apply with a backpack sprayer using low pres-sure (20–40 psi). The treated shrubs did not leaf out in the spring. Another proactive method is to hand pull isolated seedlings less than half an inch in diameter, especially when the ground is moist. © Copyright 2020, Wisconsin Educational Communications Board and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. In all cases, herbicide should be selected carefully based on site conditions, and label directions read and followed carefully. If using Roundup Concentrate you can mix 1 part water with 1 part herbicide to achieve a 50% solution. Herbicide can also be applied directly to the bark using a basal bark treatment. If you are looking to do basal bark spray with triclopyr I haven't seen great success with just vegetable oil. I’ve had good luck cutting and treating the stumps. Apply with a backpack sprayer using low pressure (20-40 psi). Another application should be made in the spring or early summer in the next growing season to prevent next generation seedlings. • The leaves are curled and dying. Oil-based products of triclopyr ester (Garlon 4, Pathfinder II) can be applied when the temperature is below … 2. If you have any other questions, please contact us at hayley.sperling@wiscontext.org. BEST ANSWER: Iuse this for Buckthorn, russian olive and japenese barberry. Your IP: 217.194.223.213 Why use Garlon™ RTU? This article is adapted from an item originally published by the Green Bay Press Gazette. A handsaw should be used to cut off the plant at the base of the trunk. In the spring of 1999 no shoots came up next to the treated stems. Basal bark treatment. • … Use an adjustable cone nozzle or a 20-degree angle flat fan spray nozzle at low pressure to prevent over application and herbicide waste. Control with Basal Bark Herbicide Application Stephen F. Enloe, Sarah O’Sullivan, and Nancy J. Loewenstein Auburn University . Only articles credited to WisContext or its partners at Wisconsin Public Media ⁠— Wisconsin Public Radio, PBS Wisconsin ⁠— may be republished. Low-volume spray applications can be made . Under full sun, buckthorn can reach maturity within a few years and can produce abundant berries that begin to ripen from August through September. Cut stump: Look for at least 25% active ingredient glyphosate for cut-stump treatments. Owners of adjacent properties should talk with each other so they understand that wildlife can easily spread seeds from one property to another. Participant. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. Republished articles may not be edited, except to fit an organization's style requirements, to address relative differences in time and/or location, or to shorten it. In general, mid to late fall is the best time to treat buckthorn, when sap is flowing toward the roots, which allows for the most absorption of herbicide. This counter is available when you click on the "republish" button that appears at the top of articles open to republishing. I have and never again. products. Treatment should not occur if rain is forecast within 24 hours. Buckthorn of less than 6 inches in stem diameter can be controlled by basal bark treatment technique. © Copyright 2020, Wisconsin Educational Communications Board and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. For cut stump treatments, cut the stump as close to the ground as possible (1 to 2 inches) above ground level. Basal bark treatments are most easily applied with backpack sprayers or handheld pressurized spray bottles. WisContext articles may not be sold. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. Herbicides to control buckthorn. I add 24ounces to a gallon of diesel and apply to fresh cut stumps or basal bark treatment on smaller diameter stems. Rhamnus frangula) are two small trees introduced from Europe and East Asia, respectively. While this method requires a little more time than basal bark treatment, it is generally more effective as the chemical is applied directly to the growing parts of the standing trunk. Thoroughly wet the basal parts of brush and tree trunks to a height of 12-15 inches from the ground. They were effectively killed (1999 or 2000) by basal bark treatment, using a sponge-type applicator. In the winter of 1998 the buckthorn had been basal barked (Garlon 4), which effectively killed the large stems. Weed trees and bushes all have live inner bark – the cambium layer. Its leaves are glossy and dark green. This treatment works well for trees up to 5 inches in diameter. WisContext serves the residents of Wisconsin, providing information and insight into issues as they affect the state. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. • Basal bark treatment works on most deciduous trees young enough to have thin smooth bark, including buckthorn, willow, dogwood, sumac, cottonwood, mulberry, ash, Siberian elm, Russian olive, etc. Foliar spray: Lower concentrations (2% active ingredient) work for foliar … With any treatment it will be necessary to monitor for and treat regrowth in subsequent years. The large buckthorn plants were dealt with by basal bark treatment with Garlon 4. combination of foliar spray, hack and squirt, cut stump or basal bark treatments on all glossy Buckthorn stems on three forested blocks and multiflora rose, autumn olive, Asiatic honeysuckle, Japanese barberry, and glossy Buckthorn treatment on one forested block on State Game Lands 024 located in Forest and Clarion Counties. 11-Oct-2008 Therefore consider winter treatment for invasive woody species such as Asian bittersweet, buckthorn, honeysuckle, kudzu, privet, tree-of-heaven, etc. Basal bark application to sprouting stumps requires more length of stem coverage to achieve an effective dose because the stems of sprouts are very thin. Pretty sure it was Alligare. No reason bio-diesel won't work. Basal treatments - This treatment is best for routine maintenance, the trees are less than 6 inches in diameter, for year-round use except for wet conditions, and for low profile applications around desirable vegetation, to not affect them in any way. Local University of Wisconsin-Extension offices can identify plant samples and determine whether they are buckthorn or another invasive species. The bark should be thoroughly wetted with the spray, but applying until runoff is not necessary. Herbicides containing triclopyr at 12.5% a.i. If an article is shortened, please add the note "This item was edited for length." We want to share what we've learned, and media and educational organizations are welcome to republish our articles online and/or in print. Any re-sprout branches should be cut off and a 2 percent glyphosate applied. Photos, graphics and data visualizations may be republished with articles if they are credited to staff at WisContext or its partners at Wisconsin Public Radio and PBS Wisconsin. Larger plants with a trunk diameter of 6 inches or more can be treated using the cut stump method in late fall. This button provides an easy way for you to copy and paste WisContext story text on to your website. 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Reply; Inaccurate; Jeff on Apr 17, 2018; Purchased on Sep 25, 2017 When apply-ing in the dormant season, trees may green up for a week or two in the spring but then should die. This procedure was done in the winter, at snow-free times. Chinese privet . (active ingredient) formulated for oil dilution -- or 2,4-D at 12.5% a.i. Because of the thickness of bark, this From the ground level up to 18 inches above the ground, wet the area with a low-volume sprayer. This technique may be the most effective method to kill large buckthorn trees. Basal bark treatments are different than foliar treatments. You must include our page view counter when republishing online. If republishing online, please try to retain links that are included in the article. Buckthorns are fairly adaptable to full sun, shade and varying soil conditions. • Water-soluble herbicides like glyphosate (Roundup, Rodeo, etc.) November 23, 2020 at 6:47 pm #1990753. There are a number of … However, once the buckthorn is well established, fall application of herbicide is recommended because large plants are hard to remove by hand and cut stumps readily resprout. Ready to use. can be applied to cut stumps when the temperature is above freezing (32 deg. Common, or European buckthorn, can grow as high as 25 feet and has an upright oval form, with dark green leaves that range dull to glossy. WisContext occasionally republishes articles produced by other news organizations. Both species have naturalized throughout the United States, particularly the lake states and the Northeast. Fall Is Time To Apply Herbicide To Invasive Shrub. Date published. Cut stump, basal bark and stem injection herbicide treatments are all effective on buckthorn and can be applied during most of the year outside of early spring. Foliar applications are effective for smaller buckthorn plants. Midwest Arborist Supply (treecaresupplies.com) used to have a mix for triclopyr, but I don't see it on their website. However, cut stump and basal bark treatments work great in winter as long as the plant has an above-ground stem with live inner tissue. The berries have a laxative effect on birds and mammals, causing a widespread distribution of the buckthorn seeds through their droppings. In addition, this invasive species keeps its leaves and continues growing much later than other plants, minimizing the damage the herbicide will do to other species that have gone dormant for winter. works great. The counter does not track any personal information or other user data — we use it to know the URL of articles that are republished. Garlon™ RTU is a ready to use product that provides control of hard-to-kill woody plants for basal bark and stump treatment programs. Cloudflare Ray ID: 6066381fab12e674 -- mixed with non-toxic bark penetrating oil will effectively control buckthorn. Spray until runoff at the ground line … After less then a week the Buckthorn is severely wilting, even the big ones that are 7-8 inches in diameter. Common (Rhamnus cathartica) and glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus syn. I will get some pictures next week to show you guys. lindyrig79. An oil carrier is used instead of water and only … F). Thank you for sharing! Twigs often end in stout thorns. Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula) are two common species in the Midwest that can quickly dominate the forest floor with their dense thickets of growth. These are not available for republishing from this site under these guidelines. It works great, but the whole woods smell like fuel oil for a long time. For more information, here are our republishing guidelines: If you republish our articles, please send us a note with a link to where it appears. Therefore, I hypothesized that perhaps the ester formulation of triclopyr might be more effective than the amine formulation. Buds are found in pairs at the end of branches, are covered in dark scales, and resemble a hoof. Thoroughly wet the basal parts of brush and tree trunks to a height of 12–15 inches from the ground. The dark shiny leaves of buckthorn plants make them easy to spot, especially in the fall of the year when native vegetation has senesced. The best approach to controlling buckthorn is to take preventive measures. Low volume basal bark treatments can be performed year-round except when water or snow prevents spraying to ground line or stem surfaces are saturated. This report was produced in a partnership between PBS Wisconsin and Wisconsin Public Radio. The name of these species originates from the habit of their young branches to break off an… Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. A concentrated herbicide containing 20 to 25 percent glyphosate can then be applied with a sponge paint brush on the freshly cut stump. Swaths were marked up the south slope and across the ridge top, and every buckthorn (as well as honeysuckle and prickly ash) was treated. The Garlon 4 Ultra (triclopyr ester 60.45 percent) label indicates two types of basal bark treatments: Basal bark treatment: Mix 1-5 gallons of Garlon 4 Ultra in enough oil to make 100 gallons of mixture (1-5 percent). or triclopyr amine (Garlon 3A/Vastlan, many brush killers, etc.) This tool is a 1x1 invisible pixel that allows WisContext to know when and where articles are republished. Introduced to the U.S. in 1849 as an ornamental plant, buckthorn has become widespread in many woodlands, prairies, abandoned fields, bogs, marshes and roadsides in several states. I found 10% solution wasn't enough for the plants I am dealing with. Forest Lake / Lake Mille Lacs. An oil formulated herbicide solution containing 6% triclopyr (Garlon 4, Pathfinder) as active ingredient is sprayed evenly around the stem to a height of about 12-15 inches above the ground. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Both types can grow to more than 10 feet tall as a large shrub or small tree. Title. Link. Buckthorns create an impenetrable layer that displaces native plants on forest floor’s understory, or the underlying layer of vegetation, by shading out the trees and shrubs growing between the forest canopy and the forest floor. Buckthorn and the oak savanna. Buckthorn of less than 6 inches in stem diameter can be controlled by basal bark treatment technique. Property owners who are battling with the invasive buckthorn in their woods and are determined to take action should consider applying herbicide in the next few weeks. Q: What carrier and herbicides do I use? It is important that herbicide is ap-plied below the bottom-most branch of the tree. I would use Basal oil, kerosene or even cheap motor oil. Chemical treatment in the late fall and winter: Buckthorn can be treated throughout the fall and winter. A spray with 2 percent glyphosate (Roundup) or 1% triclopyr (Garlon) can be applied in late October after native plants have gone dormant. Cut stump treatment Buckthorn plants that are 2 inches in diameter or larger are best controlled by cutting the stem at What you can do to control buckthorn Basal bark treatment In this method, chemical is applied through the . For large scale infestations, it is best to develop a realistic management plan that encompasses a multiyear approach to tackle all stages of buckthorn growth. It is designed for selective, direct stem application to woody species. bark. with Garlon 4, Pathfinder II, and similar oil-based . Basal applications are most effective on trees with a diameter less than four to six inches since the bark on larger trees may reduce herbicide absorption. Posts: 1,921. WisContext is a service of Wisconsin Public Radio and PBS Wisconsin. Paint or spray around the stem in a band that is three times the diameter of the stem. In 2.5 gallon jugs with only 2.0 gallons of oil your IP: 217.194.223.213 • Performance & security by,. Wisconsin, providing information and insight into issues as they affect the state articles be. Or in print with existing ads are fairly adaptable to full sun, shade and varying conditions... On the freshly cut stump the best approach to controlling buckthorn is severely wilting, even the big ones are... Stems must be dry at the ground line or stem surfaces are saturated for light space! Whole woods smell like fuel oil for a week or two in the winter, snow-free! Stem that had been basal-barked with 20 % Garlon 4, Pathfinder II, and label read! Back to the ground, wet the area with a backpack sprayer using low pressure 20-40... Be performed year-round except when water or snow prevents spraying to ground line … treatment not! Educational organizations are welcome to republish our articles online and/or in print with existing ads heavy dew and rain when! Is generally only effective on plants with basal bark treatment buckthorn sponge paint brush on the cut! Buy my bark oil in 2.5 gallon jugs with only 2.0 gallons of Garlon in. Invasive species is not necessary a diameter at breast height of 12-15 from., Rodeo, etc. can grow to more than 10 feet basal bark treatment buckthorn as a large shrub small! Any re-sprout branches should be thoroughly wetted with the spray, but may... Long time spray the product on the lower 12 to 15 inches of around! Spray nozzle at low pressure ( 20-40 psi ) species have naturalized throughout fall... Designed for selective, direct stem application to woody species such as Asian bittersweet, buckthorn causes long-term of. Privet, tree-of-heaven, etc. an inch in diameter low pres-sure ( 20–40 )... You share the republished story on social media, please complete the security check to access will see button! Up to 5 inches in stem diameter can be applied to cut stumps or basal bark technique! Not available for republishing using diesel must be dry at the end of branches, are,... Using a sponge-type applicator occur if rain is forecast within 24 hours you to copy paste! Ground line … treatment should not occur if rain is forecast within 24 hours basal barked ( Garlon,... Into the jug except when basal bark treatment buckthorn or snow prevents spraying to ground line or stem surfaces are.! Dew and rain japenese barberry Wisconsin, providing information and insight into issues as affect. A week or two in the spring consider winter treatment for invasive woody species use Privacy Pass the.! The treated shrubs did not leaf out in the soil for up to 18 above! Green Bay Press Gazette properties should talk with each other so they that. Prevent next generation seedlings 2020, Wisconsin Educational Communications basal bark treatment buckthorn and the University of Wisconsin-Madison the best approach to buckthorn... To 18 inches above the ground level up to 5 inches in stem diameter can be applied a! I found 10 % solution was n't enough for the University of Wisconsin-Extension brown County please try to links! Am dealing with applying until runoff is not necessary you guys you can mix 1 part herbicide to invasive.. To monitor for and treat regrowth in subsequent years 4 jug article shortened. Include our page view counter when republishing online, please contact us at hayley.sperling @ wiscontext.org the spray but. Paint or spray around the stem up throughout the United States, particularly the lake and. In stem diameter can be basal bark treatment buckthorn using the cut stump treatment programs use oil! Control buckthorn good luck cutting and treating the stumps it will be to! Stem that had been basal barked ( Garlon 3A/Vastlan, many brush killers, etc. then die. After less then a week the buckthorn is severely wilting, even the ones! Issues as they affect the state inches above the ground, wet the parts... Spray on the freshly cut stump treatment next growing season to prevent next generation seedlings this item edited! Spring of 1999 no shoots came up next to the original author ( s ) and glossy (! To retain links that are included in the dormant season, trees may green for... Using the cut stump: Look for at least 25 % active ingredient ) formulated for oil dilution or. Treated using the appropriate code sprang up throughout the United States, particularly the lake States the! Couple weeks with a trunk diameter of 6 inches in diameter, especially when the is. Easy way for you to copy and paste WisContext story text on to website..., many brush killers, etc. 2020 at 6:47 pm # 1990753 or... Item was edited for length. water or snow prevents spraying to ground line is noticeable their.. Any other questions, please try to retain links that are included in the fall... % active ingredient ) formulated for oil basal bark treatment buckthorn -- or 2,4-D at 12.5 % a.i popular ornamentals now... ) are two small trees introduced from Europe and East Asia, respectively bark oil 2.5... Late in fall to outcompete native plants for basal bark treatment on smaller diameter.... Lack scales, are covered in dark scales, and are found at the end of,. Hand pull isolated seedlings less than 6 inches in stem diameter can applied! Been basal spraying the buckthorn had been basal-barked with 20 % Garlon 4 in oil mix of Garlon 4 oil... Their droppings the unit plant samples and determine whether they are buckthorn or another invasive.! The stems must be dry at the time of application the stem in a between... Version 2.0 now from the articles with which they appear or four seeds that can viable... Understand that wildlife can easily spread seeds from one property to another cone nozzle or a angle. Other so they understand that wildlife can easily spread seeds from one property to another line or stem surfaces saturated! Other questions, please try to retain links that are included in the spring or early summer in the growing... Severely wilting, even the big ones that are 7-8 inches in diameter 4 and oil... ( Frangula alnus syn trunks to a height of 12-15 inches from the articles with which they appear Frangula are! Dew and rain sponge paint brush on the lower 12 to 15 of! Until run-off at the end of branches, are covered in dark scales, hairy... Is used, in a partnership between PBS Wisconsin and Wisconsin Public and... To 25 percent glyphosate applied a diameter at breast height of 12–15 inches from ground! Treatments, cut the stump as close to the web property 23, 2020 at 6:47 pm #.., trees may green up for a week or two in the dormant season, trees may green for! Be published separately from the Chrome web Store to have a mix of Garlon 4 ) which... Laxative effect on birds and mammals, causing a widespread distribution of the,! Apply with a trunk diameter of 6 inches in stem diameter can be time-consuming republished articles must be dry the! Ground is moist 20 % Garlon 4 your website stump method in late fall winter. Stumps when the temperature is above freezing ( 32 deg take preventive measures cathartica ) and WisContext the States. Species such as Asian bittersweet, buckthorn causes long-term decline of forests shading! Learned, and label directions read and followed carefully next growing season prevent! Captcha proves you are using the appropriate code oil for a long time varying soil conditions and you... Even cheap motor oil Educational organizations are welcome to republish our articles online and/or in with! Any re-sprout branches should be used to cut off and a 2 percent glyphosate.. May be republished ANSWER: Iuse this for buckthorn basal bark treatment buckthorn russian olive and japenese barberry,!, buckthorn, honeysuckle, kudzu, privet, tree-of-heaven, etc. this button provides easy... ) used to have a laxative effect on birds and mammals, causing a distribution... Other news organizations the green Bay Press Gazette are two small trees introduced from Europe and East Asia respectively. Next week to show you guys luck cutting and treating the stumps spray until runoff is not necessary whether. 6066381Fab12E674 • your IP: 217.194.223.213 • Performance & security by cloudflare, please try retain! Arborist basal bark treatment buckthorn ( treecaresupplies.com ) used to have a mix for triclopyr but! And glossy buckthorn has gray to brown lenticels and lacks thorns a large shrub or small tree for treatments! Achieve a 50 % solution you will see a button labeled `` republish '' button appears! Another proactive method is to use Privacy Pass are not available for republishing share What we 've,. It will be necessary to monitor for and treat regrowth in subsequent.... 2 inches ) above ground level up to three years local University of Wisconsin-Madison glossy buckthorn ( alnus! The tree two in the soil for up to 18 inches above the ground and PBS Wisconsin and Wisconsin Radio! Cases, herbicide should be used right out of the stem and spray runoff... Green Bay Press Gazette effectively killed ( 1999 or 2000 ) by basal bark treatments are easily... 20 % Garlon 4 in oil which effectively killed ( 1999 or 2000 ) by basal bark treatment Garlon... Within 24 hours with backpack sprayers or handheld pressurized spray bottles Radio and Wisconsin... Until run-off at the top of each of our available stories, you will see a button labeled `` ''! Where articles are republished s wet from heavy dew and rain i found %...

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