It reviews the implications of the theory for some current issues in the psychology of bilingualism, including semantic memory, episodic memory, second language learning. It depicts the verbal representations for two different languages as two separate but connected logogen systems, characterizes the translation process as the activation along the connections between the logogen systems, and attributes the acquisition of This chapter updates the dual coding theory (DCT) of the memory systems of bilingual (and multilingual) individuals. Dual coding theory is a cognitive theory Allan Paivio proposed in 1971. This study examined the nature of bilinguals’ conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. sustained on Paivio and Desrochers’ (1980) dual coding theory to describe L2 reading comprehension for the case of the bilingual learner. Later, Ss were unexpectedly tested for recall. The bilingual dual-coding theory (Paivio, 1986) partially answers the above questions. In the bilingual DCT, there are now two independent verbal systems which are linked to a common imagery system. This chapter presents a bilingual version of dual coding theory. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in differences in referential images for L1 and L2. Results replicate and extend those of A. Paivio and W. E. Lambert (see record 1982-09020-001), demonstrating a 3.3:2.4:1 ratio of recall for images to translation equivalents to copying. The use of L1 in L2 learning (and teaching) is a controversy of long history which typically appears as a debate between the audio-lingual and the cognitive-code approaches to L2/FL instruction. In order to observe trilingual implications on Paivio's dual-coding theory, 48 undergraduate participants, half bilingual, and half trilingual, •were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. According to dual coding theory, (Paivio & Lambert, 1981) bilinguals have separate memory systems for each of their languages and a non-verbal system corresponding to images. The theory leads to a strong emphasis on the role of situational contexts and imagery in second language learning. The Paivio-Desrochers bilingual dual-coding model has spawned a number of empirical studies involving both European and Asian languages largely supporting the latter. The bilingual dual-coding theory of Paivio-Desrochers (1980) represents a derivation of Paivio’s (1971) dual-coding theory expanded to bilingual learning (and, by extrapolation, to multilingualism). Its basis is the idea that mental imaging aids learning. The theory is presented as a set of assumptions and hypotheses concerning the origins and the structural and functional properties of representational systems, along with examples of the empirical implications of those hypotheses. Paivio and Desrochers’ (1980) DCT model constituted an expansion of Paivio’s (1971) dual coding theory, which attempted to represent how cognitive processes worked. The Bilingual Dual-Coding Theory While Paivio’s [ 8 ] original theory refers to one language, Paivio—Desrochers’s [ 23 ] work extends the theory to two or more languages. This study tested a dual coding approach to bilingual memory using tasks that permit one to compare the effects of bilingual en- coding with verbal-nonverbal dual encod- … This chapter discusses dual coding theory. These conditions were either translating or copying a list of 16 words they had to subsequently and unknowingly recall after an irrelevant anagram task. 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